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Summary

The paper presents theoretical and experimental study of educational process. It is assumed that certain educational problems may be described with the help of informational theory. Theoretical conclusions made in the paper have been confirmed experimentally. Restrictions of informational theory are discussed.

Introduction

It is well known that the description of the process of educational is based mostly on empirical observations and some qualitative laws. Yet  its numerical study is desirable also. Interpretation  and analysis of the process of education in terms of the theory of information is one of the methods which makes it possible to obtain quantitative relationships that control the process and to check these relationships experimentally. Such analysis, however, has several limitations. The traditional theory of information calculates and evaluates the quantity of informational unites such as bits or bytes. Yet, it matters what kind of information is given  with the several number of bites.  In pedagogical reality we can not disregard a semantic meaning of  informational quantity.  For instance, the number of bits which computer memory requires in order to enter a temperature value is constant.  It is apparent that this value would have a different meaning if we describe a state of a sick  individual or a state of water in car»s cooling system. That is why in the study of the dynamic of the process of educational one has to describe information taking into account its real semantic content.

A comprehension of a simple fact substitutes the common quantity of informational units if we describe  the quantitative relationships within individual knowledge in different conditions. The real quantity of informational units may be the same for simple facts of very different nature. For example, statements like: «It is raining» or «The sun is up» represent simple facts pertaining to the same semantical level. These facts are sufficient for the description of many practical situations. A child can instantly understand the meanings of these statements. Saying «the climate is continental» we use in the description of this fact the same quantity of informational units as in the statement:  «It is windy.» Nontheless a child can not understand the former utterance because his or her knowledge level, which is usually called thesaurus, is too low. In such a way, an optimal definition of the concept «simple fact» have to be dependent on a knowledge level of an average student. That is why our study is based on two fundamental assumptions. The first assumption is:  «It is possible to determine simple facts pertaining to a given knowledge level.» A real way of finding these facts is through discussions with experts or peers. The second assumption is: «One can describe the process of education in terms  of the general theory of information provided that one uses simple facts pertaining to a thesaurus of a constant level.»  Proceeding from these two assumptions, we are going to describe some characteristics of the process of education.